What is AMR?

What is Audio Modem Riser (AMR)?

AMR is a technology developed by Intel and was introduced with motherboards with i810 chips. With this AC97 compatible technology, it is aimed to reduce Desktop PC costs. The purpose of AMR is to process the analog I/O functions of the modem with the codec chip on a small slot called the Riser on the motherboard.


The sound transmission is made by the sound chip on the motherboard. This riser is considerably smaller in size than other slots on the motherboard. However, using this modem feature on the motherboard is not enough just AMR. To activate this feature, an AMR Card is installed for the end user, which costs much less than a PCI soft modem. All of these AMR Cards support currently available modem technologies such as V.90. With AMR, you will not reserve a slot for your modem on your motherboard. This leaves you with an extra slot that you can use on your motherboard. AMR cards can work in two ways.

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As Primary and Secondary. Primary or Secondary setting depends on whether there is a sound chip on the motherboard. If you have a sound chip on your motherboard, you will set your AMR card as Primary with the help of the jumper on it, and if there is no sound chip, you will set it as Secondary. The reason for this is to prevent performance degradation and loss of time depending on whether there is a sound chip during data transfer on the motherboard.


AMR technology is not just for modems. It has been considered in AMR cards with audio, but nowadays we can only use modem cards. With the widespread use of AMR cards, PCI modems that replace ISA modems seem to be replaced by AMR cards.

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Note: It is considered an old information, but I find it useful to know. Regards.

Gigabit Ethernet;

Despite High Bandwidth

It Looks Like It Will Protect Infrastructure Investments!

Gigabit Ethernet is the data transmission standard for Local Area Network (LAN) and theoretically represents a rate of 1 billion bits per second. We say theoretically because there are no products that work at this limit yet; The largest known data transmission rate among the products offered to end users is approximately 800,000,000 bits/second (800 Mbit/sec). Even at this rate, we can make the following comparison; 1 Gigabit Ethernet NIC alone can provide the bandwidth provided by the sum of 4 high-performance Fast Ethernet NICs (Network Interface Cards) running full-duplex on a server.


Gigabit Ethernet, which is in the IEEE 802.3 standard segment (together with Ethernet and Fast Ethernet standards), has recently entered the product range of some well-known brands. The generally targeted usage area is advanced backbones (Enterprise Backbone). Gigabit Ethernet backbones that can be used for local networks consisting of existing 10 and 100 Mbit network cards are basically seen as an alternative to ATM. The fact that the bandwidth can be increased in data transmission, being cheaper, more flexible and compatible than ATM, represents an advantage for Gigabit Ethernet for now.


Mainly based on fiber-optic media, the Gigabit Ethernet standard (IEEE 802.3z) can also use the already popular and common category 5 (CAT5) copper media (IEEE 802.3ab) over short distances.

In general, network specialists (here we specifically refer to those responsible for network management and development) try to ensure that the data cabling infrastructure used is inherently simple and has a long lifespan. The real use of Gigabit Ethernet in the existing data cabling infrastructures, namely copper media (CAT5 UTP) for the future, is the issue that most interests network experts.

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Today, the use of CAT5 is very common in workplaces in the public or private sector; They constitute almost 80% of the world’s local networks of 10 Mbit and 100 Mbit Ethernet standards. The use of Gigabit Ethernet over copper with the 1000BASE-T definition (1000Base-T IEEE802.3ab) is one of the factors that will ensure the continuity of the existing CAT5 data cabling infrastructures in the future.



Increase in carbon dioxide emissions due to fires
Severe forest fires caused worldwide carbon dioxide emissions to reach record levels in July and August.

Due to global warming, the average temperatures of the Earth are constantly increasing, as a result of which the glaciers are gradually melting. According to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), 2020 was the third warmest year on record, after 2016 and 2019.

2021 was a year when the whole world struggled with forest fires. Severe forest fires, which were effective in many Mediterranean countries including Turkey, the USA and Russia, increased carbon dioxide emissions worldwide to record levels in July and August.

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In a statement made by the EU-affiliated Copernicus Atmospheric Surveillance Center, it was recorded that severe forest fires in the northern hemisphere in July and August caused the highest carbon dioxide emission recorded since 2003, when the measurements began.

Pointing out that the fires are unusually intense and last longer than usual, the center reported that the amount of emissions they caused worldwide was estimated as 1258.8 megatons in July and 1348.6 megatons in August.

More than half of the emissions from fires worldwide in July and August came from fires in the US and Russia’s Siberia region.

of Russia; It was recorded that it caused 970 megaton emissions alone, especially in the Yakutia region and Chukotka Autonomous Okrug. Severe forest fires caused loss of life and damage in these regions as well as in Mediterranean countries such as Turkey, Greece, Spain, France and Italy.

iOS 15: Here’s what’s new and supported iPhones
Apple’s; The WWDC developer conference, where products such as iPhone, Apple Watch and iPad introduced new software and features, was held on the internet between 7-10 June and the highly anticipated iOS 15 version was introduced. Recently, with the introduction of the iPhone 13 series, the eyes have now turned to the iOS 15 update.

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The iOS 15 update, which Apple will offer to supporting iPhone models, met with users this evening at 20.00 CEST. iOS 15 HIGHLIGHTS

As you know, Apple’s popular communication application FaceTime is only used on iOS devices. However, with iOS 15, FaceTime can now be used on Android and Windows operating systems.

Thus, other video calling apps will now have to contend with a serious competitor like FaceTime. In addition, people on the call over FaceTime will be able to watch or listen to something together.

With this update, Apple turns FaceTime into a slightly more Zoom-like video calling service. FaceTime will also let you share a link to a scheduled call so you can share it with people ahead of time and join at the right time.

Apple also announced a number of other FaceTime updates coming with iOS 15. These include a new grid view option, a soundproofing feature to improve sound quality, spatial audio support, and the option to blur your background with “portrait mode”. With the iOS 15 update, notifications get a new look with contact photos and larger app icons in text notifications.

New filter modes called Focus are coming in iOS 15. This feature will allow you to set which notifications appear while you are working or doing a different job. Moreover, the notification settings you choose will be synchronized between devices. In addition, with the update, notifications can be turned on and off automatically at certain times of the day.

Apple will further develop its own applications that come built-in with iOS 15. For example, information such as air quality, humidity, cloud conditions, the actual location of the Sun will be displayed in the Weather application.

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Apple’s Maps app will also receive a number of innovations. With the update, the detail level of buildings will be increased. More advanced directions can be given with more colorful and three-dimensional maps. Detailed routes of transportation vehicles such as buses and taxis will also be displayed in the application. Apple has announced an update to its Wallet app that will allow you to use your iPhone as a digital ID at US airports.

The company demonstrated how you can scan your driver’s license or state ID in participating US states; these will then be encrypted and stored on iPhones. The company says it’s working with the US Transportation Security Administration (TSA) to enable the iPhone to be used as identification at airport security checkpoints.