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What is AMR?

What is Audio Modem Riser (AMR)?

AMR is a technology developed by Intel and was introduced with motherboards with i810 chips. With this AC97 compatible technology, it is aimed to reduce Desktop PC costs. The purpose of AMR is to process the analog I/O functions of the modem with the codec chip on a small slot called the Riser on the motherboard.

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The sound transmission is made by the sound chip on the motherboard. This riser is considerably smaller in size than other slots on the motherboard. However, using this modem feature on the motherboard is not enough just AMR. To activate this feature, an AMR Card is installed for the end user, which costs much less than a PCI soft modem. All of these AMR Cards support currently available modem technologies such as V.90. With AMR, you will not reserve a slot for your modem on your motherboard. This leaves you with an extra slot that you can use on your motherboard. AMR cards can work in two ways.

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As Primary and Secondary. Primary or Secondary setting depends on whether there is a sound chip on the motherboard. If you have a sound chip on your motherboard, you will set your AMR card as Primary with the help of the jumper on it, and if there is no sound chip, you will set it as Secondary. The reason for this is to prevent performance degradation and loss of time depending on whether there is a sound chip during data transfer on the motherboard.

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AMR technology is not just for modems. It has been considered in AMR cards with audio, but nowadays we can only use modem cards. With the widespread use of AMR cards, PCI modems that replace ISA modems seem to be replaced by AMR cards.

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Note: It is considered an old information, but I find it useful to know. Regards.

Gigabit Ethernet;

Despite High Bandwidth

It Looks Like It Will Protect Infrastructure Investments!

Gigabit Ethernet is the data transmission standard for Local Area Network (LAN) and theoretically represents a rate of 1 billion bits per second. We say theoretically because there are no products that work at this limit yet; The largest known data transmission rate among the products offered to end users is approximately 800,000,000 bits/second (800 Mbit/sec). Even at this rate, we can make the following comparison; 1 Gigabit Ethernet NIC alone can provide the bandwidth provided by the sum of 4 high-performance Fast Ethernet NICs (Network Interface Cards) running full-duplex on a server.

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Gigabit Ethernet, which is in the IEEE 802.3 standard segment (together with Ethernet and Fast Ethernet standards), has recently entered the product range of some well-known brands. The generally targeted usage area is advanced backbones (Enterprise Backbone). Gigabit Ethernet backbones that can be used for local networks consisting of existing 10 and 100 Mbit network cards are basically seen as an alternative to ATM. The fact that the bandwidth can be increased in data transmission, being cheaper, more flexible and compatible than ATM, represents an advantage for Gigabit Ethernet for now.

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Mainly based on fiber-optic media, the Gigabit Ethernet standard (IEEE 802.3z) can also use the already popular and common category 5 (CAT5) copper media (IEEE 802.3ab) over short distances.

In general, network specialists (here we specifically refer to those responsible for network management and development) try to ensure that the data cabling infrastructure used is inherently simple and has a long lifespan. The real use of Gigabit Ethernet in the existing data cabling infrastructures, namely copper media (CAT5 UTP) for the future, is the issue that most interests network experts.

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Today, the use of CAT5 is very common in workplaces in the public or private sector; They constitute almost 80% of the world’s local networks of 10 Mbit and 100 Mbit Ethernet standards. The use of Gigabit Ethernet over copper with the 1000BASE-T definition (1000Base-T IEEE802.3ab) is one of the factors that will ensure the continuity of the existing CAT5 data cabling infrastructures in the future.